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Dental prosthesis

A Dental prosthesis is a device intended to reconstruct a decayed tooth following a decay or fracture.


It also makes it possible to replace one or more missing teeth, either by a fixed means (crown, bridge and implant), or by removable devices. It helps restore good masticatory function, important for general health. Moreover, they limit the displacement of the other teeth and restore the aesthetic and phonetic functions.

FUNCTIONS OF DENTAL PROSTHESES

Dental prostheses make it possible to restore a good masticatory function, important for general health. Moreover, they limit the displacement of the other teeth and restore the aesthetic and phonetic functions.


DIFFERENT TYPES OF DENTAL PROSTHESES

  • Fixed prosthesis - On natural teeth - On implants
  • Removable prosthesis- Complete prosthesis- Partial prosthesis
  • The hybrid prosthesis

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THE FIXED PROSTHESIS


THE PROTHESIS FIXED ON NATURAL TEETH


This type allows you to rebuild a dilapidated tooth or replace one or more missing teeth. This prosthetic rehabilitation is closest to the natural teething.


Crown : It artificially reconstructs the crown of a dilapidated tooth. It also makes it possible to correct an aesthetic defect of shape, shade or position. It can be used on both a living tooth and a devitalized tooth. The teeth are prepared beforehand; this preparation consists in the reduction in volume of the coronal part of the tooth in order to obtain a conical stump on which the crown will be sealed or glued. Nowadays, this type of preparation is only a last resort because modern adhesive techniques make it possible to reconstruct the teeth by adhesion.


Bridge:It allows replacing one or several missing teeth by relying on the teeth adjacent to the edentum: the abutment teeth. A bridge resting on the two teeth adjacent to the toothless area allows one or two missing teeth to be replaced. Beyond the risk of fracture is too high. However, it is also possible to make a bridge of greater extent by increasing the number of pillar teeth. The preparation of the abutment teeth is identical to that of the teeth receiving a crown. Like crowns, bridges can be sealed or glued to abutment teeth. In the Tajmouati cabinet, we do bridges only when the pillar teeth have already benefited from fillings. If a pillar tooth is intact, we refuse to prepare it for a fixed prosthesis. We will favor an implant solution that will have the advantage of not involving the teeth adjacent to the edentulous space; and thus, the teeth will remain perfectly intact.


A crown or bridge consists of two main elements with different functions:

  • The frame: invisible part, made with alloys of precious metals (gold, platinum ...). With technological advances, it is now also possible to use high strength ceramics (zirconia, alumina, etc.) to make reinforcements. The function of this armature is to provide the mechanical strength of the restorations.
  • Ceramic: visible part made of ceramic (feldspathic). The function of the ceramic is to ensure optimal aesthetic integration

THE PROSTHESIS FIXED ON IMPLANTS

The implant is an artificial root which constitutes a stable and resistant anchorage on which is inserted a removable or fixed dental prosthesis. The implant has the shape of a screw, of a size comparable to that of a natural root and gradually and permanently integrates into the bone; this is called osteointegration. It is machined in titanium, material compatible with human tissue and bone (biocompatible).


For prostheses fixed on implants, it can be either a crown or a bridge, allowing respectively replacing one or more teeth. These restorations can be sealed or screwed onto the implants. Unlike bridges on natural teeth, these restorations have the major advantage of avoiding the use of adjacent teeth as anchors. This non-invasive technique ensures the durability of neighboring teeth.


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REMOVABLE PROSTHESIS

The removable prosthesis is, as the name suggests, a prosthesis that can be removed. It usually replaces several teeth. It may be complete or partial.


Often, in the short term, it constitutes a less expensive alternative to the fixed prosthesis. The removable prosthesis also remains a treatment indicated in patients’ refractory to the use of implants or contraindications relating to the general health or in the presence of the anatomical conditions bone requiring important grafts. Partial removable dentures require regular check-ups by the dentist with occasional rebases or repairs that have a cost.


The removable partial denture is ideal for temporary or transient rehabilitation during a period of bone and gingival healing.


Any removable prosthesis has a more or less extensive base, most often made of pink acrylic resin imitating the gum, and serving as a support for artificial teeth; these are made of resin or porcelain. The complete removable prosthesis and the partial removable prosthesis can be distinguished.


THE COMPLETE REMOVABLE PROTHESIS:

A complete removable prosthesis replaces all the teeth of an arch as well as supporting tissues. It covers the whole of the residual ridge as well as the palate at the upper jaw. Its retention results from the effect of "sucker". As a result, the retention of the prosthesis depends in particular on its extension, its adaptation to the supporting tissues, the anatomy as well as the quality and quantity of the saliva; A good occlusion (meshing of the teeth) will also oppose the tilting of the prosthesis.


The retention of a superior total prosthesis is significantly more favorable than that of a lower prosthesis.


THE REMOVABLE PARTIAL PROSTHESIS

A partial removable prosthesis is made of either a completely resin base to support the artificial teeth or a chrome-cobalt metal frame (called chassis) lined with acrylic resin supporting the replacement teeth. The retention of this prosthesis is ensured by hooks that fit on natural teeth. Prosthesis with a metal frame is provided with dental rests which oppose its progressive insertion into the underlying mucosa, which limits the risk of gingival inflammation around the persistent teeth. More rigid and resistant, it should be preferred in the majority of cases.


THE HYBRID PROSTHESIS:

Any partial or complete prosthesis may find additional retention in natural or artificial roots (implants) through devices called "anchors"


Advantages Fixed prosthesis:

  • Fixed in the mouth permanently
  • Felt by the patient as an integral part of the body
  • Completely restores masticatory function
  • Very aesthetic
  • Respected buccal ecosystem

Advantages Removable prosthesis

  • Quick processing
  • Economical and simple treatment
  • Can be changed when tooth loss